When was a pair of Greek and Roman gods first identified?

By | July 12, 2018

There is a canonical correspondence between some Greek and Roman gods and goddesses, for example Ares and Mars. However, these two were originally different deities and quite different in nature. My question concerns pairs of Greek and Roman gods like this, which were originally different but were later identified. This excludes Apollo(n), as this god seems to have been always the same, not identified later between the two mythologies.

What is the first known (written or other) identification of a Greek and Roman god? How does the identification manifest itself? Is it explicit ("We call it Iuppiter, they call it Zeus"), is it a Greek story retold with Roman names, or something else? An unattested identification is also fine if it is referenced by a later source.

I took a look at the questions about differences between the pantheons and the transfer of the Greek mythology to Rome, but they do not seem to address my question.

I asked about the same thing half a year ago on the Latin site but there have been no responses yet.