I’m learning about orbital quantum numbers. While checking several elements on the periodic table I noticed that there aren’t any atoms that have electrons in the g or h subshells. Why is this?

# Tag: atoms

## Visualizing atoms in XYZ file with colors representing partial charges

I have a file containing the atomic coordinates (in XYZ format) of a structure, and I also have a list of the partial atomic charges for each atom. I’d like to create an image of the structure where the colors of the atoms correspond to the computed charges. What are some good ways for doing this?

I have looked into using VisIt but cannot find an option to create a colorbar based on a computed property. JMol can plot charges as colors, but it’s extremely ugly, and I can’t find a way to customize the colormap. GaussView can plot charges for Gaussian calculations, but I just have an array of values not suitable for GaussView. VESTA can do surface and volume rendering (like VisIt), but I don’t see an option for colormapping atom colors. No luck with Avogadro or Avogadro2 for me either.

## Probability distribution of a system of atoms

In a system with $N$ independent atoms each with magnetic moment $mu$ directed either parallel or antiparallel to an external zero magnetic field; that is, $H = 0$. What is the probability distribution?

Okay, so I know that each of the independent atoms has $2$ possible states for its magnetic moment, so there are $2^{N}$ possible states of the total magnetic moment. I don’t understand how to find the probability distribution function from here; perhaps I’m misunderstanding the question.

I know that the thermodynamic limit is when $N$ and $V$ approach infinity with $N/V$ constant, but I’m not so sure about the magnetization

## Thermodynamic limit of a system of atoms

Consider $N$ atoms, each with magnetic moment $mu$ in a zero field $H = 0$. Given the assumption that each moment is equally likely, what is the magnetization in the thermodynamic limit?

The idea of magnetization is fairly new to me; but, from reading online, I think that it is analogous to density. Furthermore, I know that the thermodynamic limit is when $N rightarrow infty$ and $Vrightarrow infty$ with $N/V$ held constant.

I know that magnetization is defined as $dm/dV$, where $m$ is the elementary magnetic moment, and $V$ is the volume. When $V rightarrow infty$, the denominator of the $dm/dV$ term approaches $0$; so, is my answer just $0$?

EDIT: I have also found the probability distribution of the system. In case it helps, I have included it below.

$$P{X = mu_{t}} = {Nchoose {1/2*[mu_{t}/mu + N]}}/2^{N} $$

## why do the 2 carbon atoms does not participate in 2 Molecular Orbitals Of benzene?

I have seen the below given molecular orbital diagram of benzene, I did not understand why does the 2 Carbon atoms in pi3 orbital and pi5 orbital does not participate in overlapping.

## Applying a magnetic field on a collection of atoms

If we have $N = 10$ atoms with a magnetic field pointing in the $z$-direction, then all spins will point parallel to the field. But suppose the temperature is really high, so there is some chance that the spin will flip signs. If the probability of pointing up is $75%$, how can I compute the mean magnetization $M$ and the dispersion?

I know that $M = gmu_{B}(n^{+} – n^{-})$.

So I tried to compute the expected value of the arrows pointing upwards, which would be $7.5$, and the expected arrows pointing downwards would be $2.5$. Does this mean that my mean magnetization is just $5$? Since we take the difference? I’m not so sure about the dispersion though.

## Computing the probability distribution of atoms with two different states

Suppose you have $N$ independent atoms, each with a magnetic moment $mu$. There are two possible states for $mu$: either $mu = m$ or $mu = -m$. What is the probability distribution of this arrangement?

So I know that there are $2$ possible arrangements for each possible state for its magnetic moment. So there are $2^{N}$ possible arrangements, I think. Then how do I get the probability distribution function?

## Finding the probability distribution of a system of atoms

Consider $N$ independent atoms each with magnetic moment $mu$ directed either parallel or antiparallel to an external magnetic field $H$. What is the probability distribution of this arrangement? Furthermore, what’s the magnetization in the thermodynamic limit?

**

Okay, so I know that each of the independent atoms has $2$ possible states for its magnetic moment, so there are $2^{N}$ possible states of the total magnetic moment. I don’t understand how to find the probability distribution function from here; perhaps I’m misunderstanding the question.

I know that the thermodynamic limit is when $N$ and $V$ approach infinity with $N/V$ constant, but I’m not so sure about the magnetization

## Why atoms don’t get sliced while cutting objects?

We’ve read that everything’s made up of atoms. Then, when we cut a paper or slice an orange, why don’t the atoms get sliced. I know atom is mostly empty, but isn’t there a slightest chance, among quadrillion things being cut & tore everyday all over the world, that one of them would cut at least *one* atom?