How much alteration would be needed for the Cuban Missile Crisis to go nuclear?

My story takes place centuries in the future, in the year 2567. Over 600 years ago, during 1962, an all out nuclear war broke out. Most modern day historians believe it to have occurred in autumn, but whatever happened, it caused the United States and Soviet Union to go into nuclear war, destroying everyone, and everything, in a RAGING INFERNO OF ATOMIC FLAME

You and I would refer to this event as the Cuban missile crisis

My story takes place in an alt-universe were the CMC went hot, and all out nuclear war commenced. I want to make my story as grounded as possible, so my question is, what is the smallest change needed to turn the CMC into a nuclear crisis?

oak has vinegar smell, action needed?

As I was planing a board of oak, I noticed an acidic vinegar-y smell emanating from the newly exposed surface and the shavings.

I read this might be due to natural acids present in the tree. I didn’t cut the tree down, rather I have purchased the board, already surfaced on 4 sides. I’m not sure if it’s received any treatment – The label (from the big orange store) simply said “oak”.

I don’t mind the scent, but:

1. Is it a sign that i should let it dry off a bit more?

2. If it was indeed acid causing this, would I need to neutralize it before applying certain finishes?

Some pics:

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Left: end grain; image covers 1/2″ of the board’s width (fullsize — woodworkers with trypophobia: beware). Right: Face of same board; scale unknown (fullsize). Colors and whites have not been calibrated/balanced #nofilter.

How many researchers are needed to develop a humanoid robot?

The German research initiative âSonderforschungsbereich 588â was active from 2001-2012 and has developed a humanoid robot, called ARMAR. According to the old pictures, the first version ARMAR I was not very highly developed, while the latest iteration (ARMAR IV) was a near humanoid robot with arms, legs and a software defined cognitive architecture.

How many researchers were involved in the project? Thousands of programmers, researchers and external companies? No, according to the fact sheet the total number of employees was only 30 (thirty).

My question is: If it is possible to build and program a humanoid kitchen robot with such a small team, what would be possible with many more researchers?

A reciprocal metabolism is needed on a world overrun by crazy plants

In this paper by Bains et al, an alternative to oxygenic photosynthesis is discussed. Apparently, 4 times the amount of biomass can be produced using hydrogenic over oxygenic photosynthesis.

Oxygenic photosynthesis is described by the equation:

$$n, CO_2 + n,H_2 O rightarrow (CH_2 O),n + n, O_2$$
And the hydrogenic process:
$$CH_4 + H_2 O rightarrow CH_2 O + 2H_2$$
Both processes are endothermic, but the bottom one requires only a quarter the sunlight as the one on the top.

This process of interest because, since organisms that use it would have so much expendable energy, it would give rise to a crazy plant world.

As this answer points out, you need some kind of reciprocal metabolism so that the super-plants don’t eventually run out of methane and water. In addition to bringing an equilibrium to the planet, I would like this to be a heterotrophic metabolism, so that they can be herbivores that move around and do interesting things.

The only “solution” to this problem that’s occurred to me is a metabolism relying on the combustion of hydrogen. But this is stupid because 1) it doesn’t address the problem of methane 2) substantial amounts of hydrogen and oxygen in the same atmosphere is a recipe for disaster and 3) even if the combustion process was somehow perfectly contained and no lifeforms ever wanted to develop controlled use of fire, we would have to add another process which renews the oxygen content of the atmosphere.

The answer that I linked does speculate about the possibility of getting enough oxygen from terrestrial carbonate, is this feasible?

If not, what are some ways this could work? I’m open to adding any sort of compound to the atmosphere or crust of the world.

Connecting 12V WS2811 RGB LEDs to Arduino Uno & 5V Power Source (Breadboard needed?)

I have an Arduino Uno, 12V WS2811 RGB LEDs (from Mokungit), a 5V power source, and DC power connector. I do not have a breadboard and hope I don’t need one.

This is almost exactly what I need to follow this tutorial to build a Stranger Things wall. The LED strip listed shares the same name as the one I have, but the wiring is different.

Here’s a photo from the Instructables site:

However, the wires coming from my strip don’t match up to the instructions, and I can’t seem to figure out how to get these bad boys burning.

Thanks to anyone who can help me get started!

What additional piece of information is needed to calculate the change in temperature when a gas undergoes a…

The following question was posed in an exam:

$$0.18space mol$$ of an ideal gas, held in an insulated cylinder fitted with a piston undergoes an instant change in volume of $$0.3times10^{-3}m^{3}$$. The pressure exerted by the piston on the gas is kept constant at $$1times10^5Pa$$. Determine the change in temperature, and whether it’s an increase or decrease.

Since the potential energy in an ideal gas is zero, the change in internal energy will be entirely a change in the kinetic energy of the particles. I used $$PDelta v=nRDelta T$$ and got the change in temperature as $$20K$$. I beleive it to be a decrease in temperature

The question was retracted citing the fact that “the information provided in the question was insufficient for a correct calculation of
the required temperature change”.

What information is missing though?

What additional peice of information is needed to calculate the change in temperature when a gas undergoes a…

The following question was posed in an exam:

$$0.18space mol$$ of an ideal gas, held in an insulated cylinder fitted with a piston undergoes an instant change in volume of $$0.3times10^{-3}m^{3}$$. The pressure exerted by the piston on the gas is kept constant at $$1times10^5Pa$$. Determine the change in temperature, and whether it’s an increase or decrease.

Since the potential energy in an ideal gas is zero, the change in internal energy will be entirely a change in the kinetic energy of the particles. I used $$PDelta v=nRDelta T$$ and got the change in temperature as $$20K$$. I beleive it to be a decrease in temperature

The question was retracted citing the fact that ” the information provided in the question was insufficient for a correct calculation of
the required temperature change”.

What information is missing though?