Which method should i use?

I’m sorry if my English is bad, my native is Russian. I have a dataset of UK general election results and want to compare two groups which are the seats gained by Labour party (36) and the remaining seats (614, with exclusion of NI seats it is 596) on some criterias (education, health, so on, based on 2011 Cencus. I’m newbee to statistics.

My questions are:

1) I’m not sure if the assumpution of independecy is valid in this case? I assumsed it is because two sets are not related with each other as it would be with research of ‘before and after treatment’ case
2) What method (if research is meaningful) should i choose for comprasion? Should i run Welch-U ranked data test, which i did and it shows very high number of degrees of freedom? Or Mann-Withney, which i suppose would be irrelevant because of median of remaining seats set will always be ~ 300-320? Or randomly choose 30 (lab gained seats) of 614 (596) ? Some kind of weighting?

i would appreciate any answers, any research, any papers with any level of complexity for newbee. Thank you for answer.

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Should I ignore possible family information because it far too precise for its age?

I ran across this info on a possible family member, but it seems far too precise for a 250+ year old large family. Does it make sense to ignore possible family information because it far too precise for its age? It seems like such extraordinarily precision should require extraordinary documentation!

Children of JOHN PARKS and MARY SHARP are:

i. RACHEL4 PARKS, b. December 03, 1733, Wilkes Co. NC; d. Aft. 1800, Wilkes Co. NC; m. JONATHAN STAMPER, 1748, Middlesex Co Va..
ii. ELIZABETH PARKS, b. February 27, 1733/34.
iii. MARY PARKS, b. January 04, 1735/36.
iv. WILLIAM PARKS, b. October 13, 1738, Amherst Co Va. v. JOHN PARKS, b. March 06, 1738/39.
vi. THOMAS PARKS, b. November 29, 1740, Burke Co NC.
vii. ANN PARKS, b. September 15, 1742.
viii. WILLY PARKS, b. March 24, 1742/43.
ix. WINDFIELD PARKS, b. March 24, 1742/43.
x. BENJAMIN PARKS, b. March 25, 1746, Haywood Co NC.
xi. FRANCES PARKS, b. December 28, 1747, Va..
xii. CHARLES PARKS, b. October 13, 1749, GA.
xiii. SUSANNA PARKS, b. September 22, 1751, Wilkes Co NC. xiv. LINCHFIELD PARKS, b. February 14, 1753, NC..
xv. SARAH PARKS5, b. March 27, 1755, Wilkes Co NC; m. CORNELIUS SALE5.

I have seen it on several Ancestry.com trees, virtually never sourced, except for one website (which seems to have disappeared) which included the explanation it was from a diary and notes:

These are the children of T. Parks, a brother to John my Grandfather’s according to the memory of Benjamin Parks of Wilkes Co. N.C.This Aug 9th 1848 (Signed) E.M. Parks…

J Maddox asks argues that this data is most likely fake at the Parks Family Genealogy Forum.

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Unable to use left arm, what exercises should I do?

Due to an injury I have a partial paralysis in my left arm, both shoulder and elbow.

This means I cannot do most of the upper body exercises. The only things I can do are single handed (dumbbell/machine) ones- biceps curl, triceps extension, shoulder press, chest press, etc.
I can grip stuff but I cannot lift any weight.

I want to focus on my core and legs. For the upper body, I want to bulk up a bit on shoulders, biceps and triceps so that cuts are visible but not too much as the asymmetry will look very ugly.

As per the BMI machine, I need to loose 4.9 kg fat and gain 2.5 kg muscle. (I’m 63 kg, 169cm)

I need to make up my exercise routine for 4 days a week, especially on specifically which core exercises I should do and how much cardio.

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Should I calculate ROI as Benefits/Costs or Gains-Investment/Investment? Which is rather correct?

I am kind of puzzled as various sources give either of those formulas to calculate ROI:

  1. Cost of Benefits /Cost of Investments
    or
  2. (Gains – Investment) / Investment

The obvious problem that if I invest 1000 EUR and gained 1000 EUR, the first formula will yield ROI=100% while the second ROI=0%.

To me, the latter seems more natural as the investment did not bring anything, just paid for itself. But how people understand that, which way is more common?

A real life example:
Test automation. Initial investment is high, about 18 000 USD. In the first release, it only brings modest saving (12 320 USD).
The first formula gives ROI=68,5%, the second then ROI= -31,5%,

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Should reinforcement learning always assume (PO)MDP?

I recently just started learning reinforcement learning and learned that reinforcement learning algorithms work under the assumption of MDP or POMDP.
However as I read A3C and recent vision based deep RL papers, it seems some of them aren’t assuming MDPs but used RNNs or LSTM to make it seem as if it is MDP.

So my question is: how does reinforcement learning algorithms work without the assumption of (PO)MDPs?

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In formal writing, should you capitalise the word “colonies” referring to the thirteen colonies?

In formal writing (MLA format essay) when should you capitalise the word colonies? I imagine the in the phrase “The Thirteen Colonies” it would be as that is a title, but I’m not sure if it is indeed correct. Also would it be capitalised in a sentence like one I’m writing, “This caused a rise in Christian influence in the Colonies” is that correct? Or should it be lowercase?
Thanks.

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Should reinforcement learning be always modeled as (PO)MDP?

I recently just started learning reinforcement learning and learned that reinforcement learning algorithms work under MDP or POMDP models.
However as I read A3C and recent vision based deep RL papers, it seems some of them aren’t MDP or POMDP models but used RNNs or LSTM to make it seem as if it is MDP.

So my question is: Does reinforcement learning algorithms have to be modeled in MDPs or POMDPs in order to work?

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How should reinforcement learning be modeled?

I recently just started learning reinforcement learning and learned that reinforcement learning algorithms work under MDP or POMDP models.
However as I read A3C and recent vision based deep RL papers, it seems some of them aren’t MDP or POMDP models but used RNNs or LSTM to make it seem as if it is MDP.

So my question is: Does reinforcement learning algorithms have to be modeled in MDPs or POMDPs in order to work?

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How should a self-taught musician study and reach his goals?

I am a self-taught pianist. I have been playing piano for about 7 years. I can play all my major and melodic minor scales comfortably. I excelled in AP Music Theory in high school.

My goals are to improve my piano technique, eventually compose music, and learn my music theory well. I eventually want to compose for a wide variety of genres, including some subgenres of EDM such as future funk, synth-pop, and the experimental/glitch genre.

I am not going to school to study music, but on the side of my schoolwork I have been meeting with music professors to get some guidance. I have been looking at counterpoint textbooks and learned the five species of basic counterpoint. I have also read the first 200 or so pages of Mark Levine’s Jazz Theory, up to the part about sequences.

I am not sure how to proceed next – I don’t know if going further into the jazz textbook will give me the skills I want, since I myself do not consider jazz my favorite genre, but found the seventh chords and smooth voice leading interesting.

I don’t know what to do at this point. I don’t know what textbooks to study next, or what techniques to practice. I can always practice my scales on the piano, but I want to grow my knowledge that will help me compose better music as well.

I could compose some more music, but I’m not sure that would expand my skills – only reinforce my existing ones. I could improvise, but I don’t know exactly how to improvise in a way that will help me improve, as I have no formal knowledge of improvisation. I could also pick up another textbook on harmony.

However, I don’t really know what to do next. Does anyone have any suggestions?

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Why should I use exFAT over NTFS on removable media?

So, basically I always format my removable mass storage devices as NTFS by default, but someone told me I was better off using exFAT. Now I’ve been looking around google, but can’t find any good reasons why I should.

Is there anything that exFAT does (better) which NTFS doesn’t which is useful when using it for (>4GB) removable mass storage?

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