Can one trade off the number of iterations for key length with the PBKDF2?

When using the PBKDF2, is one taking on significant risk if one chooses to lower the number of iterations and choose to have very long keys?

Say, I want to use XOR to encrypt my data using a plaintext sized PBKDF2 key.

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The origin of the icon as a symbol used in trade

The information about the origin of writing systems is a bit difficult to piece together, to find when the first accounts of “writing used to transfer information over large distances”. For example, the list of languages by first written accounts focuses on more “modern” (so to speak) writing systems, starting in ~3k BCE with Egyptian hieroglyphics. But the history of written numbers dates back to 40k BCE, using tally marks in bones and other materials. Then native american painting dates back to at least 10k BCE, and other cave paintings in Europe to even 40k BCE.

So I’m wondering what the consensus is of when we specifically started to write stuff down to send it over large distances for trade. Technically I guess you can say that a cave painting might be a message that extends over large distances of time, but that I would say is more potentially a permanent message rather than one used to transfer information over distances. I’d be interested to know, too, when the first permanent messages were created, but that seems like a more vague and less well-developed concept, and probably better for a separate question.

So for this question just wondering specifically about trade, and transferring information over large distances. Modern examples include paper, telephone, and internet. The earliest example I found was ~3k BCE with Aramaic drawing icons of lets say an Egyptian ox head 𓄀 or which led to Proto-Sinaitic (1850 – 1550 BCE), to Phoenician 𐤀‬ or (~1050 BCE, “oldest verified alphabet”), to Paleo-Hebrew (~1000 BCE), to Aramaic (~800 BCE), etc.

I’m not too concerned with whether it was just tallies, icons, or alphabets. More just wondering when the technology was developed historically (in different places in the world) to transfer information over large distances for trade. It seems that just to transfer information over large distances without trade could have occurred much earlier, but that is just speculation.

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What is the purpose of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA)?

What are the stated goals of the proponents of ACTA? In what way do these goals diverge from the likely effects of the Agreement claimed by those who oppose it?

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Filter Constituents on “Do not trade?”

Before I add a custom field to handle this, I thought I’d make sure I’m not missing something.

When I go to Contact Reports -> Constituent Summary, it appears you can include and filter on all the “Do not” privacy settings EXCEPT “Do not trade.”

Is there a way to add the ability to filter on “Do not trade?” Any idea why that one in particular is left out?


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Does a margin trade influence the order book?

I’m not sure if this is the place to ask this, but I didn’t know where else to go. I’m doing some crypto trading on bitfinex and I’m particularly interested in margin trading.

What I wonder about is the following: if I do a large margin trade (long or short), does that influence the order book? I mean; does a margin trade actually buy (or sell) the underlying assets? Or does a margin trade only buy a derivative (just like options) and thereby doesn’t influence the order book of the underlying asset?

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What should I add behind the Trade Name for my Sole Proprietorship?

I am registered as a Sole Proprietorship in india to do business.

I have provided a Trade Name eg. ABC

So I have 2 questions:

  1. In my Terms of Service and any other legal document can I use the Trade Name eg.

    “These terms are between you and ABC”

  2. What should I add behind ABC? for example for LLC you add ABC LLC.

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Is it true that the U.S has to run a chronic trade deficit with the rest of the world as a price to pay for being the world’s reserve currency?

I have heard of the argument that in order for USD to be reserve currecy, the rest of the world must own enough USD to store it as reserves. In order for the rest of the world to own enough USD, U.S has to buy more goods than U.S sells to the rest of the world. In other words, run a trade deficit.

Is this a sound economic argument? If no, what are some holes in this argument? If yes, wouldn’t the trade tariffs that President Trump is imposing on its trade partners all over the world lead to the end of USD as world’s reserve currency?

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Should I trade in a car I own to lower my payments on a new lease?

I currently own a crossover SUV, valued at roughly $9000. I’m planning on leasing a truck in the nearish future, with the intent to finance the balance after the lease ends.

I’ve read that down payments in general on leases are just masking the cost of the lease. Should I sell the crossover myself, and save the $9000 to put down during the financing after the lease? Does it make a difference? If I traded in my paid-off car during lease negotiations, am I throwing money away?

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Balance of Trade ( Surplus and Deficit)

I’m new to economics. I want to ask that what remedies that the government can actually employ to address the deficit/surplus in the fish trade balances over time?

My attempt,

Trade deficit

(i) The government can strengthen the diplomatic relationship with foreign countries by signing five to ten years contract with the purpose of buying more Malaysia’s fish commodities but at a lower price. This action can increase the export of our country’s fish commodities and earn a long term profit.
(ii) Provide the export incentive to local fish industries in order to help them remain competitive in the global market by exporting more fish commodities. Export incentive will reduce the cost of export and therefore increase the competitive force of local industry in global market.

Trade surplus

(i) the government can eliminate the trade tariff in order to induce foreign countries to import more fish commodities in our country. This will make the import and export of Malaysia equivalence.
(ii) The government can buy the fish commodities surplus of local fish industries and store them to reduce the export.

Is my answers correct? Is there better solution? Thanks in advance.

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how to find whether trade is possible between two nations [on hold]

In the following image, we have U.S. and U.K. producing wheat and cloth in bushels/hour and yards/hour respectively.

In all cases except in case D, given in the figure, trade is possible between U.S. and U.K.

how did we reach this conclusion?

step 1: U.S. can exchange 4W for 1C domestically if she gets any ratio of exchange lesser than 4W/1C say, 3W/1C or 2W/1C or 1W/1C then U.S. shall be willing to exchange wheat for cloth.

step 2: U.K. can exchange 1W for 2C domestically if she gets any ratio of exchange greater than 1C/2W say, 1W/1C then U.K. shall be willing to exchange cloth for wheat.

Conclusively, if the ratio lies between 4W/1C and 1W/2C, both U.S. and U.K. shall be willing to trade.

if we apply this formula in all cases, we can find whether trade is possible or not between the two nations.

My question is whether this method is foolproof?

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